Англо-американская помощь югославским ВВС

После разрыва с СССР  the first-line strength of the JRV was still declining, so in 1951 the Yugoslav Chief of Staff, Colonel General Koča Popović, visited the United Kingdom to discuss the situation. It was agreed that a substantial shipment of aircraft would be forthcoming. In October 1951, the first de Havilland Mosquito F.B.6 fighter-bombers were supplied. The following year, 150 Republic F-47D Thunderbolt fighter-bombers were delivered from the USA under a Mutual Assistance Pact.(Вики)

Этот Константин Попович личность далеко не заурядная. Богач, коммунист, сюрреалист, интернационалист и сторонник свободного рынка одновременно.

 He served as the Chief of the Yugoslavian General Staff from 1945-1953. In this function he also conducted negotiations with the representatives of Western powers associated with the modernisation of the JNA during the conflict with the Soviet Union.

Итак, de Havilland Mosquito. 

Yugoslavia had 60 NF.38s, 80 FB.VIs and three T.IIIs delivered. То есть, 60 ночных истребителей, 80 истребителей-бомбардировщиков и 3 учебных. Интересно,  до какого года они использовались  в ВВС ЮНА? Приблизительный  советский аналог  — Ту-2 — производился в СССР аж до 1951/52 гг.  И,  по некоторым данным, состоял на вооружении до середины 50-х. Так что, югославский Москито не выглядел на его  фоне ужасающим анахронизмом.

Republic P-47 Thunderbolt in  Yugoslav Air Force (150 aircraft, 1952)

The first Thunderbolts reached the YAF on 31st December 1951, in the American part of the program relating to the agreement of mutual military assistance. During 1952 and 1953 planes P-47 were the back-bone of the Yugoslav Air Force fighter-bomber aviation, until arrival of jet planes. In September 1953, in army maneuvers in vicinity of Zagreb, an interesting case occurred, when a regiment of Thunderbolts supported cavalry charge! During so-called Trstian Crisis, in October 1953, P-47 played deceiving role preventing provocation of Italians to turn onto a serious war conflict. Through the YAF had passed a total of 150- Thunderbolts, distributed to ten air regiments, before the last plane were removed fro an inventory, in April 1961.


http://www.muzejvazduhoplovstva.org.rs/eksponati.php?jez=eng&id=19

В 50-е же годы Тандерболты состояли ещё и на вооружении многих латиноамериканских стран. Можно ли после этого считать Югославию банановой республикой? Не уверен до конца.

Lockheed T-33 in Yugoslav Air Force – Operated 125 Shooting Stars in four variants: 25 T-33A, 22 RT-33A, 70 TV-2, and 8 TT-33A (all retired)(Вики).

First two planes of this aircraft type landed to Batajnica Air Base airfield on 10th March 1953, and were handed over to the 117th Air Regiment. Their arrival was directly broadcasted by Radio Beograd because it were the first operational jet planes in the YAF, opening the new page in its development. Planes broke a rumour that pilot of jet plane had to bi a kind of a superman, moreover, it turned out that flying a jet is more easier, plane lacking rotating and gyroscoping momentum of a propeller. Besides, it was the first aircraft type in the YAF equipped by ejection seat, and using for take-off from short runways rocket boosters.

More then 120 planes of this type different variants had passed through the YAF, among which TR-33, introduced into service in 1955, and Navy TV-2, (commonly nicknamed "tevejac”) joined service in 1961. The last eight plane, converted into target tugs, were scraped in 1984.

Republic F-84 Thunderjet. Yugoslavian Air Force operated 231 Republic (R)F-84G from June 1953 until July 1974 (Вики).

The first Thuinderjets, delivered to Yugoslavia under the MDAP program on 9th June 1953, were assigned to the pilots’ Conversion Center and the 117th Air Regiment, and soon took over the main role in the fighter-bomber duties. During 1955, a number of these planes were converted into a reconnaissance version RF-84G.

Не случайно F-84 использовался как штурмовик в ЮНА. Уже в Корейской войне он был не слишком успешным в боях с более современными МиГами-15.  Поэтому и там Тандерджеты работали в основном по наземным целям. The USAF claimed F-84s were responsible for 60% of all ground targets destroyed in the war. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_F-84_Thunderjet

Кстати,  готовили первых югославских пилотов для них в Германии.

 At the same time, a number of Yugoslav pilots underwent jet flying training in Germany. These deliveries substantially improved the combat effectiveness of the JRV.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Air_Force

Только в Португалии Тандерджеты эксплуатировались тоже до 1974 года. В других странах их списали гораздо раньше. Даже в Турции уже в 1966 году.

И наконец — легендарный Sabre.


SFR Yugoslav Air Force Received 46 former RAF Canadair CL-13 Mk.IV in 1956/57 through Mutual Defense Aid Program, and bought another 78 ex-RAF machines from USAF in 1959, for a total of 121 Sabres.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadair_Sabre

Cтранно, но 46+78 =124,  а не 121...

The first planes of the "long nose Sabre”, as the plane was commonly and unofficially named among Yugoslav airmen, the YAF received relatively late – on 25th August 1961. It was the first fighter plane in the YAF equipped by radar sight and engine with afterburner. There were 130 F-86D planes bought, of which 30 were instantly dismantled, to be used as spare parts. The first unit operatively using "D” Sabres was the 117th Fighter Regiment. During their fighter "career” never were more then 40 of them operative, and 29 planes were converted to reconnaissance version IF-86D, by building in three aerial cameras K-24, instead of rocket launchers. Their delicate electronic equipment gave a lot of problem in maintaining to technical personnel, thus "Ds” weren’t favorite among the YAF mechanics. The last planes were removed from an inventory in 1974.

Однако здесь https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Air_Force речь идет о другой модификации :  in 1956, after numerous delays due to political considerations, 121 F-86E/Canadair CL-13 F.4 Sabres interceptors were delivered.

А именно — 

Пока непонятно, кто прав.

Кроме самолетов западные союзники поставляли режиму Тито и вертолеты.

Хорошая статья об этом —  "Хеликоптер С-51 у Југословенском ратном ваздухопловству" в сербском военном журнале - http://www.odbrana.mod.gov.rs/arsenal/90/Arsenal%2090.pdf

Плюс  о Sikorsky / Westland / Soko S-55 Mk-5 

отсюда же http://www.muzejvazduhoplovstva.org.rs/eksponati.php?jez=eng&id=24

Encouraged by success of his helicopter S-51, famous American aircraft designer of Russian origin, Igor Sikorsky, projected transport helicopter, which could, besides two crew members, to carry ten soldiers or six wounded on stretchers. Helicopter had fist flight on 10th November 1949, and combat baptism had in the Korean Wart, where was used not in it’s main, transport and communication role, but in rescuing and evacuating pilots of shot down aircraft, or infiltration of intelligence officers, (spies!) in the enemy’s rear. Except in the USA, helicopters were produced under license in the British enterprise Weestland.

Yugoslav Air Force obtained from England four such helicopters in October 1957, and latter, in 1961 helicopters were built under license by the aeronautical industry "Soko”, while the transmission gears were manufactured by the "21st May" ("DMB”), at Beograd. It were the first helicopters built in Yugoslavia, ever.

Through the JRV had passed 45 S-55 helicopters. Except the basic purpose, transport variants S-55 and S-55-5, there were also helicopters of anti-submarine variant S-55 Mk-7, which had the third crew member servicing radar and equipment for fighting submarines, and was also supplied by floats, enabling landing on and taking-off from the water surface. The first two such helicopters were obtained from England 1960, and four more were made under license at factory "Soko”, at Mostar. It were the first anti-submarine helicopters in Yugoslav aviation, and carried in fuselage a homing guided torpedo.

All variants of S-55s were withdrawn out of service in 1974.

Помимо собственно авиатехники югославы получали и сопутствующее вооружение к ней. В том числе и ракеты воздушного боя Sidewinder.

Ещё по теме — https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/politika-ssha-po-podklyucheniyu-yugoslavii-k-sredizemnomorskoy-strategii-nato-1950-1954-gg

Если кратко суммировать вышеизложенное,  то можно прийти к выводу, что военная помощь Запада ФНРЮ несколько запаздывала. Начни Сталин войну в 1950/51 гг, эта помощь была еще  в пути или вообще ещё только  в стадии обсуждения. После же его смерти вероятность нападения резко уменьшилась и помощь стала уже излишней. Хотя подавление Венгерской революции 1956 года опять реанимировало старые страхи относительно возможного советского нападения.

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